Text: Zhang Jiajian (Postdoctoral Researcher, Institute of East Asian Studies, National Chengchi University) Since the beginning of the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19, Wuhan pneumonia) that broke out from Wuhan began to ravage the whole of China, and in March 2020, it swept the world and caused a global pandemic crisis (pandemic). As of May 17 , more than 210 countries or regions around the world have been affected, with more than 4.66 million confirmed cases and more than 310,000 deaths. In addition to making people reconsider "the ability of a country to prevent epidemics" and "whether democracy or dictatorship is better", this crisis has directly triggered a debate on global health governance, of which the focus is on the World Health Organization (WHO). , WHO) efficacy and role. The World Health Organization, which is affiliated to the United Nations, as the world's largest specialized agency for public health, has always been regarded as the core pillar of the global health governance system (regime).
It was questioned by public opinion and criticized for being too passive in its response in the early stage of the crisis, for not fully investigating virus information, exposing the risk of disease spread, and failing to assist Member States in establishing response mechanisms as early as possible. Then, when the global situation deteriorated, the WHO was accused of not being proactive and decisive, and often presented simulated or even contradictory information.  The Trump administration in the United States therefore advocated that the incapacitation of the WHO was Wedding Photo Editing one of the main reasons for the severe epidemic in the United States, and decided to suspend financial assistance to the WHO. In all fairness, each government should take responsibility for the epidemic in its own country, and should not blame the problem entirely on international organizations. However, the plight of the World Health Organization (WHO) in dealing with COVID-19 has indeed highlighted the inadequacy of the current global health governance structure and challenged the mainstream paradigm of international cooperation and governance in international relations research. According to Robert O. Keohane,
the founder of the theory of neoliberal institutionalism and international regime (International Regime), international regime (including international institutions and organizations) has the function of providing impartial information, which can reduce the uncertainty of interaction between countries and transactions. costs, which in turn promotes cross-border cooperation.  However, in the process of health governance in the face of the global spread of COVID-19, the WHO obviously did not achieve such a role. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the existing literature on international organizations and global governance to answer two questions: First, under what conditions might international organizations produce Biased Governance? Second, once the operation of the international organization deviates, what are the possible consequences? Since the global impact of the Wuhan pneumonia epidemic crisis is unprecedented in breadth and depth since the establishment of WHO in 1948, the relevant health governance literature is still developing and inconclusive.